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Jesus Fulfills the Jewish Feasts

Jesus Fulfills the Jewish Feasts

Passover (Pesach)

The word pesach is not in other Semitic languages. It is only in the Hebrew scriptures.

The Egyptian word pesht corresponds to “to extend the arms or wings over one protecting him”.

Passover is not so much “passing by” as it is “passing so as to shield over”--as a hen wings cover her chicks.

The covering was the blood.

“The passing by” was done by the death angel. The “death angel” passed by every home that had the blood on the sides and top of the door.

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The idea of the giving of blood or death of one to be given for another

to cover their sin to die in their place goes back to Genesis in the Garden of Eden.

After Eve and Adam ate from the Tree of the Knowledge Good and Evil they saw that they were naked (without clothes) and they felt afraid and ashamed.

Before this they did not feel afraid of God or ashamed of being naked.

God came into the Garden every evening to talk and visit with Adam, but after Adam ate from the tree, he hid from God.

When God came to visit, He called Adam and said, “Where are you?” Adam said, “I heard your voice and I was afraid because I was naked.”

God asked Adam, “Who told you that you were naked?” That Adam knew he was naked was proof that he had eaten from the tree. He did not see himself as naked before at least, he was never ashamed of it.

It would seem to me that the real reason Adam was afraid was not because of being naked but because he knew he had not obeyed God. He did what God said not to do.

This is true for all of us when we sin and do not obey God we are afraid of Him.

When our sin is forgiven “covered” we are not afraid of God. We welcome His presence and “visits” to us.

To cover Adam’s nakedness God made coats of skins and clothed them. Genesis 3:21

I believe that God killed some of the animals and the skins were used to cover the nakedness of Adam and Eve,

Their sin was put on the animal and the animal died in their place. The animal was only a “substitute”. An animal could not take the place of the person. It was a temporary substitute. Meaning it was to be used for a time until a better more perfect sacrifice could be made.

“Death punishment” was hanging over them.

They did not just fall down dead. But their bodies began the slow dying of getting older and older.

Their spirits were under a “death punishment” to be forever separated from God’s presence.

Just as in the Garden Adam hid from God because he was afraid.

So sin separates us from God’s presence both now in this life and forever.

God wanted fellowship with man. So he spoke to the serpent (Satan who used the serpent to speak through.)

God told the serpent that some day he would send a “seed” of the woman “a baby” who would bruise the serpent’s head and the serpent would bruise the “seed’s” heel.

This “seed” of the woman was Jesus. It was of the woman and not of a man and woman. The “seed” was grown in the woman by the power of the Holy Spirit of God. A human man had no part in it.

Jesus did bruise the serpent’s head (Satan) and defeated him at the cross

and when Jesus rose from the dead.

The serpent (Satan) only bruised Jesus’ heel on the cross.

(We know from those who dig in the ground to find old things from history that they found a heel bone of a man crucified about the same time that Jesus was.

The nails were put through the heel of a person not through the front of the feet as pictures show.)

“without the shedding of blood there is no remission (remove) sin.”

Hebrews 9:22 Leviticus 17:11

(In the Old Testament laws, the rules about the lamb used for a sacrifice had to be year old male, with no blemish (perfect as much as could be seen).

It would be a picture of Jesus who would come. Jesus was called the Lamb of God. He was perfect. He died for man’s sin.

Jesus being perfect and without sin would be accepted as the perfect sacrifice to pay for their sin.

No other sacrifice would have to be made after that. It would be complete.

And when Jesus rose from the dead Jesus conquered (won) over death.

Satan’s power over man has been broken. No more can Satan hold men guilty of sin or hold death over them if their sins are covered with the blood of Jesus.

Just as when the death angel passed over those who had the blood on the sides and top of the door of their home so death will not come to those who have the blood of Jesus covering their sins.

People must come to Jesus to get out from under Satan’s power. Jesus is the only one who can forgive sin. Because it is Jesus’ blood that can cover their sin.

Jesus is the only one who has the power over sin and death. So we find freedom from sin and death in Jesus only.

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(Back to Passover)

The lamb’s blood was to be drained from the animal--saved in a basin--and using a hyssop branch (this is a plant with leaves) --the blood was to be put (“painted”) on the lintel (over the door) and on each side post. ( not on the threshold where it would be trodden under foot Heb.10:29)

The first Passover 10th of the month of Abib (the Jewish name for the month). For us that would be March/April.

The Head of each family (father) selected a lamb 1 yr. old, male, no blemish (no sore, cut, bruise, not crippled, not blind----a perfect lamb.

Small families could join together with others --usually about 20 people. It could be more or less.

The lamb was selected on the 10th day of that month. It was usually separated out from the flock.

It would be carefully taken care of until the day it was to be killed. They wanted it “perfect” for the sacrifice. If it was not “perfect” they could not offer it.

The lamb would be killed and offered on the 14th day of that month.

Some writers have said that:

During the days of the tabernacle and temple -the lambs were brought to the temple and kept in the courtyard for public view. Each lamb had a sign hung around its neck bearing the name of the owner.

The lambs were kept in public view to be inspected to determine that there was no blemish.

 

Just like the lamb was “marked” as the one to be killed, so Jesus was “marked” to be killed.

(Mark 14: 1-2, 8, 10,11; Matt. 26:1-5,14-16; Luke. 22:1-6)

For a long time the Jewish leaders had been trying to capture Jesus. Judas went to them and told them he would help them get Jesus-----if they paid him money.

 

Two days before the Passover, Jesus went to the home of Simon the leper. A woman with a perfume box, came to Jesus and poured it on Jesus. This kind of expensive perfumes were often used to put on people’s bodies when they died. Jesus said the woman did it early before he died. That it was done for his burial.

 

Jesus was taken to the court of the high priest. They questioned him. In a way, they were “inspecting” looking over Jesus, “the lamb“. To see if there were any blemishes or anything wrong with him.

He is also was in Pilate’s court being “inspected” as to if he did anything wrong.

Jesus was inspected 7 times and they found no fault (wrong).

(1.) By Pilate Jn 19:4 (2.) By Herod Lk 23:14,15 (3.) By High Priest, Annas Jn 18:19 (4.) By Caiaphas, a high priest (5.) By Judas Matt. 27:4 innocent blood (6.) Centurion Matt. 27:54 (7.) By thief on the cross Lk. 23:41

He also had a “sign” --not around his neck, but over his head, Jesus, of Nazareth, King of the Jews”. Matt.27:37 Mark 15: 26 Lk 23:38 John 19:19

During Bible times, messages were commonly written with the first letter of each word. An example in English would be UPS--for United Parcel Service.

The Hebrew initials for the Hebrew words of “Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the Jews” was YHWH. When the Jews saw how the sentence “Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the Jews” came out in initials of YHWH -----they were upset.

Because these same initials YHWH also stand for the word Jehovah.

The sign made it look like “Jehovah” “God” was being crucified.

The Jewish leaders never believed Jesus to be “God”. They were angry that this sign was over Jesus. That is why the priest asked Pilate to change what was written. Pilate would not change it. John 19:21-22

The truth was Jesus was “Jehovah” “God” as well as he was a man.

Just as the father of each family put his name on his lamb, so the Heavenly Father put his name on his Lamb-- though Pilate did it without knowing it.

 

The lamb was killed on the eve of the 14th day and eaten on the 15th day.

The lamb was killed on the 14th day between the two evenings.

(Exo. 12:6 Lev. 23:5 Num. 9:3-5 Deut.16:6)

The rabbi defined two evenings as the time between the sun’s decline and the actual sunset. Josephus, a Jewish history writer, says that this time was between the 9th hour to the 11th hour----which is 3:00pm to 5:00pm.

A day was divided into “hours to watch or be on guard”. The Roman soldiers took turns standing watch or guard. These are the times of their shift.

The Roman military night watch was :

6:00pm or sundown to 9:00pm First Watch

9:00pm to 12 midnight Second Watch

12 midnight to 3:00am Third Watch

3:00am to 6:00am or sunrise Fourth Watch

The Jewish people divided their day differently. They also had temple soldiers and they stood guard and watched. The Jewish “day” began at evening and went until the next evening. Example: A day was from 6:00pm to the next 6:00pm.

6:00pm to 10:00pm even

10:00pm to 2:00am midnight “hour”

2:00am to 6:00am cock crowing

6-7am 1st hour

7-8am 2nd hour

8-9am 3rd hour

9-10am 4th hour

10-11am 5th hour

11-12pm 6th hour

12-1pm 7th hour

1-2pm 8th hour

2-3pm 9th hour *

3-4pm 10th hour

4-5pm 11th hour

5-6pm 12th hour

For the Jew A day started at 6:00pm and went until the next evening at 6:00pm

Part of a day could be counted as a day.

The lamb was usually killed about 3:00 pm on the 14th. This was the end of the 9th hour. It was roasted for several hours and eaten after 6:00pm which began the 15th day--the actual day of the Passover.

The lamb was roasted whole Gen. 22:8 ---with fire. Fire represents to sanctity (clean) by fire.

A wooden spit made of pomegranate wood was used. One piece was inserted into the lamb lengthwise, and one crosswise with the front legs attached to it. Thus it formed a cross. (Jesus “the lamb” on a cross.)

Whatever was not eaten was burned.

No bone was to be broken. The lamb was to be whole--the meat was taken and divided among the partakers (people eating).

Jesus offered himself on a cross. No bone was broken. John.19:36

 

 

The ancient custom was to kill the Passover lamb shortly after the daily sacrifice at 3:00pm.

Jesus died at the 9th hour--which was 3:00 to 4:00pm. Matt. 26:46, Mark 15:34

At the 6th hour until the 9th hour, darkness covered the land. This was prophesied in Amos 8:9 The 6th hour was 12 noon. It was dark from noon until 3:00pm---when Jesus died.

It would be dark again at sunset. So it was like having “two evenings”. Jesus died between two evenings,” like the lamb.

 

When Jesus died, he said “It is finished!”. John 19:30

Jewish custom says: This is what the high priest said when he had finished on the Day of Atonement---after all the many animals were slain--and all was completed---he came to the door of the temple and announced to the people in a loud voice, “It is finished!”.

The Jews did not want the bodies hanging on the cross on the Sabbath and especially so because it was a High Sabbath-Passover, so they asked Pilate to break the legs of the men so it would hasten their death so they could take the bodies down.

When they came to Jesus, they saw he was already dead, so they did not break his legs, but they did pierce his side. John 19:36 Psalms 34:20 Num. 9:12

Remember the lamb’s bones were not to be broken.

Joseph of Arimathaea and Nicodemus came and got Jesus body.

During this time most Jews were eating the Passover lamb--those who were ceremonially clean.

For those who were not ceremonially clean at the time of the regular Passover, they were allowed to celebrate it the next month.

Joseph and Nicodemus would have been ceremonially unclean for the regular Passover. In the next month, they could eat the lamb. Num.9:1-14 Deut. 16:1-6 The Jews called this the “little Passover”--it lasted one day instead of seven.

During the last supper with Jesus, the Bible does not say anything about their eating the lamb.

The disciples could well have eaten the Passover lamb on the 15th as did everyone else. While they are eating the lamb, Jesus is in the grave.

That year the Passover came on a Friday. Jesus died on Passover day.

The Feast of the Unleavened Bread was on Saturday,

The Feast of First Fruits is celebrated on the 1st Sunday after Passover. That year 3 feasts fell 3 days in a row.

Feast of Unleavened Bread

The 15th day is also the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread---Jesus is buried in the grave.

This day begins seven days of eating unleavened bread.

Unleavened bread is bread made without yeast----like a flat bread. Leaven or yeast was a symbol for sin. There was to be no sin.

Jesus said, “I am the bread of life.” John 6:35 Jesus was like the unleavened bread (no yeast, leaven, sin) Jesus had no sin.

This day is a Sabbath (Saturday)

“At the end of the Sabbath, as it began to dawn toward the first day of the week” Matt. 28:1 Lk 24:1 Jn 20:1

There was a great earthquake, and angel come down from heaven and rolled back the stone. Matt. 28:2

Mary Magdalene and the other Mary, the mother of James and Joses (Matt. 27:56 Mk 17:1) came to the sepulchre.

Luke 24:10 says: Mary, Joanna, and Mary the mother of James and other women who were with them told these things to the disciples.

Perhaps the two Marys who were at the tomb and then went to tell the disciples, also told the other women and they all went to tell the men.

Jesus died on the 14th at 3:00pm, was in the grave by 6:00pm of the 14th. He was in the grave on the 15th--Passover, and in the grave on the 16th day until dawn at 6:00am. On the 16th at dawn, he rose from the dead. This was on the 3rd day.

If part of a day can be counted as a day Jesus was in the grave

Part of the 14th, all of the 15th and part of the 16th. Three days.

 

 

Feast of First Fruits

The Feast of First Fruits began the day after the Sabbath- -the 16th day--on Sunday. A sheaf (small bundle, handful) of the barley was brought to the temple to wave or present to the Lord. (Lev.23:11) This was the “first” of the harvest. The “first of the fruits” of what they grew and a small handful of it was brought as an offering to the Lord. Exo. 23:19

This offering was so the people would remember that it was the Lord who sent the sunshine and the rain that made things grow. They were showing the Lord that they were thanking Him and honoring Him for the food He helped them grow.

Jesus is referred to as the “First Fruit”. I Cor. 15:20 Acts 26:23.

Jesus rose from the dead on the first day of the Feast of First Fruits.

When the women came to the tomb. Jesus told Mary “Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended to my Father”.

He being the “first fruit of the harvest“---he was a wave offering before the Lord.

He is to present Himself before the Lord as the First Fruit.

A sheaf was a symbol of a person. Genesis 37: 5-8

Psa.126:6 says :Bringing sheaves with him means bringing people with him.

Lev.23:14 A person can not eat until sheaf is brought to the Lord.

Jesus has raised from the dead, but he had not yet put himself before the Father. Jesus said to Mary, “ Do not touch me, for I am not yet ascended to by Father…” John 20:17

Someone has suggested the thought that Jesus had yet to take his blood to apply it to the Mercy Seat in Heaven for our sin. Hebrews 9: 12 because Revelation talks about an ark of his testament being in heaven. Rev.11:19

Jesus was resurrected on the Feast of First Fruits. He was the “first fruit” of the resurrection. All of us will be resurrected some day. Some of us will be resurrected unto eternal life, and some of us unto eternal death. John 5:20 Rev. 20:5,6

 

Feast of Pentecost

“Count from the Feast of First Fruits---seven Sabbaths--49--to the morrow after the seventh Sabbath--50th day--was Pentecost.” Lev.23:15 Deut. 16:9

Oral tradition says that Pentecost is the day that Moses received the Law of God on Mt. Sinai.

Israel left Egypt on “the morrow after Passover, in the first month, on the 15th day of the first month Num.33:3 15th

Exo. 16:1--- Israel came unto the wilderness of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai, on the 15th day of the second month after their departing of of the land of Egypt--so far that is 30 days.

Exo. 19: 1-- In the 3rd month the same day they came to the wilderness of Sinai---that is 15 more days. So far that is 45 days.

And Moses went up unto God (in the mountain) Exo. 19:3 And it came to pass on the 3rd day in the morning----thunders, lightning voice of trumpet--Exo. 19:16 That’s 48 days.

Somewhere there may be two days to make the 50.

Jesus was on earth for 40 days after his resurrection.

Acts 1:3 After being seen of them for 40 days--- Acts 1:9 a cloud received him out of their sight.

When the day of Pentecost was fully come Acts 2:1 The disciples and other believers were together in an upper room waiting for the “power” that Jesus had told them to wait for--Acts 1:8.

They waited for 10 days.

This feast comes 50 days after Passover. This feast celebrates the wheat harvest.

At the feast, two loaves of leavened bread are given as a wave offering.

The two loaves represent the peoples of the earth--Jews and Gentiles. Both have sin (leaven-yeast). This is different than the unleavened bread at Passover representing Jesus (sinless).

Another comparison --at Sinai about 3000 died because of their worship of the golden calf Exo.32;28

At the New Testament Pentecost about 3000 were saved. Acts 2:41

The 3 feasts that come in the fall are:

Feast of Trumpets, Day of Atonement, and the Feast of Tabernacles.

 

Feast of Trumpets (Rosh Hashanah)

This is a fall feast and it begins the 10 days of “awe”. The word “awe” means great respect and wonder----a fear and respect together.

The Day of Atonement will be coming next--so the 10 days of this feast are time given to prepare their hearts and repent.

The Day of Atonement is the day when all accounts are settled between God and his people. It is a day when God will judge them for their sin-----unless their sin has been covered with blood and forgiven.

The Feast of Trumpets comes on the new moon. A “new” moon means you can not see any moon for a time and then you see a “new” moon begin.

Long ago to determine if the new moon had yet appeared--two priests would keep watch. When they were sure that the “new” moon was seen, they told the high priest. Then trumpets were blown so the people would know that the feast had begun.

 

No one knew when the “new moon” would show up----so they had to watch for it.

They had a general idea when it would come. But the exact day and hour, they did not know.

Jesus was talking about his coming again. He said, “But of that day and hour knows no man, no not the angels of heaven, but my Father only.” Matthew 24:36

In the next several verses, Jesus goes on to talk about one person being taken and one person being left behind.

Jesus said, “Two will be in the field, one will be taken, the other left.

Two women will be grinding at the mill; one will be taken, and one will be left. Watch, therefore, for you know not what hour your Lord does come.” Matthew 24:40-42 Luke 17:34-38

In the New Testament, Paul talks about the “trump of God” . I Thessalonians 4:16 He talks about the rapture the gathering together of believers and that they will be taken up into heaven.

I Corinthians 15:52 speaks of the “trumpet shall sound” “dead in Christ will be raised.

We know from prophecy of what will happen in the end of time that Jesus’ coming will be soon. We know the general time. We do not know the day or the hour.

But Jesus warned us to “Watch”. Be ready.

The Feast of Trumpets --begin in the month of Tishrei--the first month of the Jewish civil calendar, rather than the Jewish religious calendar.

So we might expect these next 3 feasts to have to do with governments or historical events.

So far Jesus’ life and death has followed the Jewish Feasts.

Remember Jesus said that he came not to do away with the law but to fulfill the law. Matthew 5:17

 

In the first 4 Jewish feasts-----Jesus death followed the pattern of the feasts.

The next feast is the Feast of the Trumpets.

How will Jesus fulfill the Feast of the Trumpets?

We know how he fulfilled the other feasts, because it is already done. But how will Jesus fulfill the next feasts coming?

 

The Feast of Trumpets is next. What will happen?

This feast comes in September or October---each year it is different.

It is called Rosh Hashanah.

It is possible that the coming of Jesus in the clouds to gather the believers will happen at Rosh Hashanah one of these September/October days.

 

The Day of Atonement

The Day of Atonement was to be 10 days later.

The purpose of “the 10 days” before the Day of Atonement were for people to repent of their sin and to be ready for the Day of Atonement.

Some Bible teachers think this time is when the Tribulation will happen. Many terrible things will happen on the earth.

People will surely see that God is making them happen. It will be a time for them to repent----If they will. Before Jesus comes to judge the world.

On the Day of Atonement for the Jews the High Priest took the blood of the sacrifice into the Holy of Holies and sprinkled it on the Ark of the Covenant.

People waited hoping that God would accept the offering for sin and forgive their sin.

When the High Priest returned and the blood of the sacrifice having been accepted --- there was great relief among the people.

 

The Day of Atonement is the day God judges the people for their sin.

(Those people who have had their sin covered in Jesus ‘ blood have already “judged” themselves of their sin and asked for forgiveness. So their sin has been covered with a blood sacrifice. )

In the New Testament, the book of Revelation speaks of this day as the Day of Judgment for all the earth. Rev.20:12, 13

Some day Jesus will judge all people for their sin.

 

Feast of Tabernacles

This is a time of feasting after the harvests have been gathered.

In the Old Testament, the people made temporary shelters out of branches and lived in them for the time of the feast.

It was like “camping out”---only not in a tent, but in a shelter made of branches.

It was to remind the people of the time the Jews came out of Egypt and traveled through the wilderness. They were to remember how God took them out of slavery. And how God took care of all their needs in the wilderness.

It was a happy time of feasting.

They had just been through the Day of Atonement----their offering for sin had been accepted and their sins had been forgiven, now it was time to be happy.

In the New Testament, the book of Revelation speaks of this time after the Day of Judgment---there will be “a new heaven and a new earth.

“Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men and he will dwelt with them and they shall be his people, and God himself shall be with them, and be their God.

And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes; and there shall be no more death, neither sorrow, nor crying, neither shall there be any more pain:---and they shall see his face” Rev.21: 1, 2, Rev. 22: 4

 

Summary:

It seems that the important happenings in Jesus’ life/death followed the pattern of the Jewish feasts------the first four. It seems reasonable that Jesus’ life will follow the next 3 feasts.

If this is true the next feast to watch for is Rosh Hashanah that happens in the fall of each year. It is possible one of these fall times, the “trumpet” could sound and believers will be gathered up into the clouds.

This time has been called “the rapture’ meaning the “catching up“.

 

We do not know when the “rapture” will happen. Only the Father knows when it will happen. Jesus said to “Watch and be ready.”

 

Are you ready for this “rapture”? Are your sins “covered” by Jesus’ blood?

Are you ready to go up to meet Jesus?

 

 

 

 

 

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